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#1 17-04-2018 09:32:44

Date d'inscription: 01-12-2017
Messages: 484

remind yourself

BERLIN Nathan Peterman Bills Jersey , Dec. 7 (Xinhua) -- Following are the standings from the German Bundesliga soccer league on Sunday (tabulated under matches played, won, drawn, lost, goals for, against and points):

1. Bayern Munich 14 11 3 0 33 3 36

2. Wolfsburg 14 9 2 3 28 13 29

3. FC Augsburg 14 8 0 6 20 14 24

4. Leverkusen 14 6 5 3 25 18 23

5. Schalke 04 14 7 2 5 25 18 23

6. Monchengladbach 14 6 5 3 19 12 23

7. Frankfurt 14 6 3 5 27 26 21

8. Hoffenheim 14 5 5 4 21 22 20

9. Hannover 96 14 6 1 7 14 21 19

10. Paderborn 14 4 5 5 19 23 17

11. FSV Mainz 05 14 3 7 4 17 20 16

12. FC Koln 14 4 3 7 14 20 15

13. Hamburger SV 14 4 3 7 9 18 15

14. Dortmund 14 4 2 8 15 21 14

15. Hertha Berlin 14 4 2 8 19 26 14

16. Freiburg 14 2 7 5 15 21 13

17. Werder Bremen 14 3 4 7 20 31 13

18. Stuttgart 14 3 3 8 18 31 12

SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 24 (Xinhua) -- Carolyn Bertozzi, a professor of chemistry at Stanford University, has shown that removing certain sugars surrounding breast cancer cells can recruit a second arm of the immune system - the innate immune system.

The approach, described in a study published this week in Proceedings of the (U.S.) National Academy of Sciences, greatly improved the effectiveness of a breast cancer drug in a lab dish, opening up a new avenue in the fight against cancer.

"This is a whole new dimension to immune therapy," Bertozzi said, adding that she thinks it could be the first of many therapeutic approaches involving the sugars that surround cells, called the glycocalyx. "People in this field are starting to appreciate that there are many different nodes that you need to affect to get a more robust immune reaction against a tumor, and the glycocalyx appears to be one of those nodes."

Researchers have long known that if certain sugars are present on a tumor, it is less likely to respond well to therapies, according to a news release from Stanford. But nobody knew what that halo of sugars was doing, in part because such a small number of labs study the glycocalyx.

Evidence had been mounting within those few labs that do study the glycocalyx, including Bertozzi's, that a subset of sugars called sialic acids act as a signal for the innate immune system to ignore the otherwise suspicious-looking tumor. Eliminate those sugars, and maybe innate immune cells would be more likely to recognize and attack the cancer cells, Bertozzi thought.

Bertozzi and her team worked with breast cancer cells in the lab that had varying amounts of a protein called HER2 on the surface. Women whose tumors have that protein at high levels generally receive a therapy called Herceptin, which is an antibody that binds to HER2 and flags the tumor cell for destruction by innate immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages.

But Herceptin does not always work, especially in tumors with less abundant HER2, and if sialic acids are present on the cancer cell surface, then it is even less likely to be effective.

The Stanford team used chemistry tools they had created in previous work to attach what is essentially a chemical lawn mower onto the Herceptin antibody. Once the drug bound to HER2 molecules on the cancer cell, the chemical mower sliced off the neighboring sialic acids.

With those sugars gone, Herceptin became significantly more likely to activate NK cells to kill the cancerous cells, especially in cases where the cells had lower levels of HER2 and higher levels of sugars. This all took place in a lab dish, but Bertozzi is hopeful a version of this strategy could be effective in people.

"All of the world of immune therapy is now thinking about the immune system as calculating pluses and minuses. If you want to tilt the scale toward immune activation, you can either augment the activator or remove inhibitor, or both," said Bertozzi.

The office is one of the most neglected areas when it comes to cleaning. When people do not have that cleaning guy coming in regularly in the office, the office desks tend to accumulate dirt endlessly until it is decided to do a major cleaning. Even if you hire janitorial services, chances are that not all parts of your desk had been cleaned. The keyboard may still be harbouring dirt and the computer screen may not have been wiped thoroughly. It doesn’t matter if the office is a regular office space or a home office. Office spaces need to be kept clean to prevent germs from piling up and causing unwanted diseases. By following some simple cleaning tips, you do not have to depend on a cleaning guy to keep your office tidy.

To keep the office always clean and free from harmful germs, a regular cleaning habit should be established. You can help remind yourself to dedicate a few minutes for cleaning by putting a note on your desktop. Computers and other electronic equipment are the most common items in an office. These machines accumulate dirt easily and should be regularly cleaned with Cleaning Supplies specifically made for electronics. Developing a habit for cleaning will make it a regular routine for you that you would not even have to think about it.

While developing the good habit of regularly cleaning the office, be mindful to also get rid of bad habits such as eating in front of your computer. Sometimes, we just find it hard to leave work unattended that we do everything we can while facing the computer screen. Eating in front of the computer, no matter how careful you are, can easily leave crumbs and small food pieces on your computer’s keyboard and desk. This could attract pests like cockroaches and mice to your office desk.

In line with making a good habit to regularly clean the office space, make sure to clean the office once a week in the least. Equip yourself with a good amount of Cleaning Supplies Brisbane for the desk, computer screen, keyboar.

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