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#1 18-01-2020 03:52:54

Diana Hope
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Date d'inscription: 18-01-2020
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puma fenty

ÿþThe puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the puma fenty Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America.

In the present study we employ this longer ND5 segment to investigate the evolutionary history of P. concolor , with emphasis on South American populations, which were previously found to harbor high levels of diversity and inferred to have played a key role in the historical demography of this species ( Culver et al. , 2000 ). Given that the geographic sampling of South American pumas was limited in that first puma women shoes study, we aimed here to expand the representation of the various regions of this sub-continent, so as to allow refined inferences of population structure, maternal gene flow and demographic history.

To select a marker that would provide suitable information levels, we initially examined the mtDNA fragments used in previous studies, especially puma shoes in canada those involving Neotropical felids ( e.g. Eizirik et al. , 1998 , 2001 ; Johnson et al. , 1998 , 1999 ; Culver et al. , 2000 ). We selected the ca. 750 bp-long fragment of the ND5 gene reported by Trigo et al. (2008) , thus considerably increasing the information content derived from this marker relative to the previous phylogeographic study of the puma ( Culver et al. , 2000 ). Finally, the availability of ND5 sequences for the extinct felid Miracinonyx trumani ( Barnett et al. , 2005 ) was an additional asset of this segment, allowing the inclusion of this puma shoes women fossil taxon in some analyses.

AMOVAs were performed using ¦ st computed from a pairwise matrix based on p -distances. Statistical significance of ¦ st values was tested using 10,000 permutations. To minimize the effect of prior assumptions on puma geographic subdivision we tested a variety of different scenarios attempting to identify the best possible way to represent historical population structure in this species ( i.e. the one that maximizes the estimated ¦ st ). These AMOVAs were based on two sample sets: (1) South America (SA) only: and (2) the full sample of SA, Central America (CA) and North America (NA).

Additionally, to investigate spatial patterns of genetic structure in pumas we assessed the correlation between genetic and geographic distances for all pairs of sampled individuals using a Mantel test ( Mantel, 1967 ). This was performed with the program Alleles in Space (AIS) ( Miller, 2005 ), employing the proportion of differences ( i.e. a p-distance equivalent) to generate the genetic distance matrix and 10,000 permutations to assess statistical significance. We also employed AIS to perform a spatial autocorrelation analysis of the data set, using 11 distance classes, equalized sample sizes across classes, and 10,000 permutations to assess significance.

Our first set of Beast runs was aimed at estimating the puma shoes for basketball molecular clock rate for our segment in puma lineages. We assumed a Yule Process for the tree prior and incorporated an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock. In order to better fit the expectations of the Yule process we only included five divergent puma haplotypes, along with the two jaguarundi sequences generated here. To calibrate the molecular clock we assumed that pumas and jaguarundis diverged between 3.16 and 6.01 MYA (95% HPD of the estimate reported by Johnson et al. (2006) using a nuclear supermatrix). We applied a uniform prior using [img]http://www.fteacadia.ca/images/shoes/puma shoes for basketball-117ydl.jpg[/img] these ages as conservative minimum and maximum boundaries, respectively.

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